Rockfeller Fundation (fonte wikipedia)

The Rockefeller Foundation is a prominent philanthropic organization and private foundation based at 420 Fifth Avenue, New York City. The preeminent institution established by the six-generation Rockefeller family, it was founded by John D. Rockefeller.

Some of its objectives and achievements include:
1. Financially supported education in the United States "without distinction of race, sex or creed"
2. Helped establish the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine in the United Kingdom;
3. Established the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health and Harvard School of Public Health, two of the first such institutions in the United States;
4. Developed the vaccine to prevent yellow fever;
5. Developed and funded various German eugenics programs, including the one that Josef Mengele worked in before he went to Auschwitz.
6. Helped The New School provide a haven for scholars threatened by the Nazis

... the Rockefeller Foundation's pre-eminent legacy ranks it among the most influential NGOs in the world.[13] By year-end 2008 assets were tallied at $3.1 billion from $4.6 billion in 2007, with annual grants of $137 million.

La Fondazione Rockfeller è un organizzazione filantropa e privata con sede a 420 Fifth Avenue, New York City. Istituzione preminente stabilita dalla 6 generazione della famiglia Rockfeller, fondata da John D. Rockefeller (Senior)

Alcuni dei suoi obbiettivi e programmi conseguiti sono:
1. Sostenere e finanziare l'educazione negli Stati UNiti "senza distinzione di razza, sesso o fede";
2. Aiutato a stabilire la Scuola di Londra dell'Igiene e della Medicina Tropicale nel Regno Unito;
3. Stabilire la John Hopkins Public School e la Scuola di Medicina pubblica di Harvard ... ;
4. Aver sviluppato il vaccino per la febbre gialla;
5. Sviluppato e fondato diversi programmi di eugenetica Tedesca, incluso quello in cui Josef Menegele lavorò prima che andò ad Auschwitz.
6. Aver aiutato La Nuova scuola a fornire rifugio per gli studenti minacciati dai Nazi.

... la Rockefeller fundation è tra le più grandi e influenti al mondo. Nel 2008 i patrimoni ammontavano 3.1 miliardi di $, con conferrimenti annuali di 137 milioni.



Beginnings
Rockefeller's interest in philanthropy on a large scale began in 1889, influenced by Andrew Carnegie's public essay...

, Frederick Taylor Gates, seriously revived the idea, saying that Rockefeller's fortune was rolling up so fast his heirs would "dissipate their inheritances or become intoxicated with power", unless he set up "permanent corporate philanthropies for the good of Mankind"

They applied for a federal charter for the foundation in the US Senate in 1910, ...
... because of the ongoing (1911) antitrust suit against Standard Oil at the time, along with deep suspicion in some quarters of undue Rockefeller influence on the spending of the endowment, the end result was that Senior and Gates withdrew the bill from Congress in order to seek a state charter.


Gli interessi filantropici dei Rockefeller su vasta scala iniziarono nel 1889, influenzati dai saggi pubblicati da Andrew Carnegie...

, Frederick Taylor Gates, diceva che la fortuna dei Rockefeller stava crescendo troppo e iniziando a "essere intossicata con il potere", se non istituiva delle "corporazioni filantrope permanenti per il bene dell'Umanità"

Si iscrissero per applicare carta di regolamenti federale per la fondazione nel Senato Americano nel 1910...
... a causa dell'antitrust operante contro la Standard Oil al tempo, assieme ai sospetti dell'influenza di sovvenzioni non necessarie da parte dei Rockefeller, alla fine Senior e Gate decisero di ritirare la legge dal Congresso

At the beginning the foundation was global in its approach and concentrated in its first decade entirely on the sciences, public health and medical education.
This expanded the work of the Sanitary Commission worldwide, working against various diseases in fifty-two countries on six continents and twenty-nine islands, bringing international recognition of the need for public health
Its early field research were hookworm, malaria, and yellow fever

In 1914 the foundation set up the China Medical Board, which established the first public health university in China, the Peking Union Medical College, in 1921; this was subsequently nationalised when the Communists took over the country in 1949.

Also in 1914, the trustees set up a new Department of Industrial Relations, inviting William Lyon MacKenzie King to head it. He became a close and key advisor to Junior through the Ludlow massacre, turning around his attitude to unions; however the foundation's involvement in IR was criticized for advancing the family's business interests

All'inizio la fondazione ebbe un approccio globale che si concentrava sulle scienze, la salute pubblica, e l'educazione medica.
Fece espandere i lavori della Commisione sanitaria in tutto il mondo, operano contro varie malattie in 52 paesi di 6 continenti portando riconoscimenti internazionale per la necessità della sanità pubblica.
Il suo primo campo di ricerche furono l'anchilostoma, la malaria e la febbre gialla.

Nel 1914 la fondazione si stabilì in Cina, che stabilì la prima università della sanità pubblica nel 1921; questa venne successivamente nazionalizzata quando i Communisti presero potere in Cina, nel 1949.

Nel 1914 fli amministratori stabilirono un nuovo Department of Industrial Relations, invitando William Lyon MacKenzie King alla guida. Divenne un informatore di Junior riguardo la massacro di Ludlow...; comunque la fondazione venne criticata perché i suoi affari con la IR favorivano gli interessi della famiglia Rockefeller.

Programs: scale and scope
Thousands of scientists and scholars from all over the world have received foundation fellowships and scholarships for advanced study in major scientific disciplines. In addition, the foundation has provided significant and often substantial research grants to finance conferences and assist with published studies, as well as funding departments and programs, to a vast range of foreign policy and educational organizations, including:

Migliaia di scienziati e studiosi da tutto il mondo hanno ricevuto borse di studio per studi di ricerca avanzata nelle maggiori discipline scientifiche. In più, la fondazione ha fornito significativi e spesso sostanziali conferimenti alla ricerca per finanziare conferenze ..., oltre a fondare dipartimenti e programmi, e una vasta gamma di organizzazioni di politiche estere e di educazioni che includono:

- Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) - Especially the notable 1939-45 War and Peace Studies that advised the US State Department and the US government on World War II strategy and forward planning
- Royal Institute of International Affairs (RIIA) in London
- Carnegie Endowment for International Peace in Washington - Support of the diplomatic training program
- Brookings Institution in Washington - Significant funding of research grants in the fields of economic and social studies
- World Bank in Washington - Helped finance the training of foreign officials through the Economic Development Institute
- Harvard University - Grants to the Center for International Affairs and medical, business and administration Schools
- Yale University - Substantial funding to the Institute of International Studies
- Princeton University - Office of Population Research
- Columbia University - Establishment of the Russia Institute
- University of the Philippines, Los Baños - Funded research for the College of Agriculture and built an international house for foreign students
- McGill